Tag Archives: Ethics

​Absurdity of contemporary Video Distribution models..

A few years ago, there was a grey area in video consumption, via YouTube. The question was ‘Was it legal and ethical to download content on YouTube for offline consumption?’ 

The question was particularly important back then considering that, mobile devices and content consumption was on the rise for content access on the go, but data charges were not affordable specifically for video, considering that video is a huge bandwidth hog. 

The situation hasn’t changed much since then, but we’ll come back to it, in a bit. 

To solve this problem, many third party applications that would enable the user to cache video content from YouTube offline when WiFi was available, so that users could later view the content at their convenience within the confines of their devices, without being bothered about the mobile data charges or availability of the Internet. 

Two things facilitated this arrangement. YouTube’s API support for authenticating third party clients helped this immensely and the codec standards used by YouTube would be open standards and non proprietary. Since open Codec standards were used, This largely meant that caching of content and therefore taking content offline through technological means would not be much of a hassle for normal streams although YouTube continued to apply encryption (DRM) for specific video files on request by the rights holder. 

As the mobile market continued to evolve with better mobiles becoming cheaper and faster connection standards like 3g replacing edge and 2g, mass switchover to mobile consumption took place. Many nascent subscribers experienced the power the Internet for the first time. 

This facilitated immense growth of non video services like email, social media, productivity applications etc, but video by its nature of being bandwidth intensive, people could not have the freedom of choice to consume content due to economic reasons. 

Possibly Sensing stagnant growth, YouTube bit the bullet itself, allowing users to cache content within the application a couple of years ago, taking upon itself, the solution of solving the ethical question raised in the beginning of this post. 

Since then Google has realised the maturity and inconveniences of the Indian mobile Internet market and therefore made not just YouTube but also it’s other services like Google Docs, Email and also even it’s Google maps for offline downloading. 

YouTube continues to remain the dominant near defecto ‘video consumption’ website globally. In this background, one needs to analyse the recent emergence of other global alternate video streaming services like Netflix and HotStar and the much anticipated Amazon Prime service in India. 

As a rule of thumb, there are 3 A’s (Availability, Affordability and Accessibility) that are mandatory for the meaningful penetration of video in any market. The value of these attributes could not be better highlighted than today, when the shelf life of ‘Top-down’ generated media content continues to fall and so does its exclusivity as a public engagement tool. 

Let us now analyse the case of Netflix and HotStar. These models do not intend to compete with YouTube as a mass, two way video ‘user engagement’ medium, but follow the classic ‘Top-down’ model of providing one way content to its consumers. It’s definitely much more ‘niche’ than YouTube. 

These models are betting on ‘exclusivity’. Unlike the doomed ‘C2H network of director Cheran’ who did not have the native bandwidth to constantly generate new and updated content and had to rely on external variables, HotStar probably realised that it was generating sufficient material via its TV network to start its own distribution medium and bring other people on board as the story went along. Netflix although new in India has been around long enough in the content distribution business even from DVD days (like the failed Seventymm.com business model) and has started investing on its niche ‘Netflix Exclusive Digital content’ apart from distributing content of other creators. This exclusive content creates the possibility for users to break away from YouTube and come towards them. 

Although these models charge a recurring monthly fee allowing unlimited access to their catalogues, they do not directly compete with piracy. HotStar has a Freemium model which provides users to sample some of its content for free, while pushing a large quantum of its catalogue to the ‘Premium Tier’ for Rs.199 a month. 

Netflix offers a free one month trial before its monthly plans start at Rs. 500 for SD. It’s HD tier stats from Rs. 650. These are clear cut paid services. Although they allow unlimited access to content, they should be seen as a ‘Revenue Enhancer’ rather than a ‘Piracy Beater’ because they work on ‘exclusivity’. 

In the recent past, there has been immense pressure on large scale piracy sites like ‘K.a.t’, ‘The Pirate Bay’ etc making pirated content harder to come by ( A user hell bent on pirating content will find it anyway). 

Some of these regularly filtered content prone to piracy distribution like English movies and TV shows are regularly filtered out from pirate networks and are also available on these services and this creates an opportunity for a user in India to see this content legally at an affordable price point. This is a move that definitely needs to be appreciated. 
Do we classify these services as a ‘Piracy Beater’ or a ‘Revenue Enhancer’? More important than its classification is the need to highlight what is a stupid business move by these services. 

Unlike YouTube, these services do not allow caching of content on mobile devices. There are stories speculating that they may come soon, but they aren’t there yet. But shouldn’t thisnhave happened long ago? 

people are paying for content , yet cannot access them according to their convenience. What good is content in India if it has to be accessed only via WiFi and cannot be cached to be seen later? 

This makes no point to a potential customer on the ledge and will drive him back towards piracy. So from this argument, they need to be probably classified more as a ‘Revenue Enhancer’ since it doesn’t seem to be focusses on the user who may want to view pirated content. 

While it’s easy to point fingers at legitimate distribution services, there are more finer points that may be needed to be looked at. Probably it isn’t entirely the fault of these services themselves, but it high time, copyright holders see the ground realities and the practical problems faced by customers of these so called legitimate distribution models. 

In this case, the availability of content is limited ( due to licensing issues – The irony is. That copyright continues to work on a global geographical scale when piracy has long transcended these barriers) – even if is ‘affordable’ – stupid restrictions like these,  make content practically ‘inaccessible’. 

Mind you, the content offered for offline access is DRM encrypted and users cannot download them, so what really is the problem for these rights holders and distribution companies to provide offline access to paying customers, i don’t understand. 

Piracy continues to live on, not only due to economic reasons. It also happens largely due to the ‘convenience’ it offers, a simple mantra which the legitimate world of media distribution keeps failing to understand. 


Free Internet by Facebook.. Wow.. But Really.. has Net Neutrality gone for a Toss?

This was the questionnaire that i had posted to Facebook’s blog site. I am not very optimistic about a response, but if i do get one, i shall share it here.

“Hi, I am a researcher working on various aspects of the evolving Internet ecosystem. I am sure, that you would have come across this question several times, but, I would like a response from the aspect of Net Neutrality. Is Facebook really promoting and providing free Internet to millions, or is it simply promoting itself? The definition of the Internet, should clearly be, free and Fair access to any website, chosen by an individual, but Facebook clearly isn’t doing the same. It would have made sense if Facebook had indeed made the entire Internet free, or at subsidised costs, without any bias, with users having equal access to any service of their choice. But, that clearly doesn’t seem to be the case.

For instance, I use a competitor to Hungama for my music listening services, but if i switch to your so called ‘Internet.org”, i will have to pay for it. Then, how is this fair and how is this making the Internet available to millions, when the basic rules of Net neutrality have been thumped for a toss? I hope i do get a response.

Read the original Facebook post here., and look at this quote, from that post.

“Today, Facebook and Reliance Communications are making the internet (few websites only, including Facebook, off course) available to millions of people in India through the launch of the Internet.org app and free basic services. This is the first time the Internet.org app will be available in the region.”



P.S : Having made a nice big rant, and although, I do not stand for it, I have long believed that Net Neutrality is not at all viable in the long term, atleast not in India. And this is just a classic example, possibly. And i think, the strongest villain in this debate is the Elephant in the Room, Video, who hardly features in such topics of ‘Net Neutrality’ discussion. This will call for a seperate post. Hope you like the post.






I feel like an Old Man today..

I feel so very old today. The book should have been up by now, where I was rushing up things when suddenly, something went wrong. I had ADHD, this I knew. But I guess my brain had taken the limit of its strain and it couldn't take the load anymore..crashhh..

I am now on doctor recommended tablets. More than the function of keeping me alive, they are keeping me sane. Maybe, I hope it is his 'will' that I have enough mental energy to get the KTP project to its eventual goal.

Today, I chanced to have a look by chance at some old engineering books, and I was shocked. When we read and learnt them, they were all theory. We knew nothing about the radio spectrum, 2g, EDGE, Optical communication, Frequency Modulation, White Noise, Signal to Noise Ratio , bandwidth etc..

Did anyone of us even know what was the practical value of 2 Mbps, back then ? Today's, engineering students are that mich more lucky in that sense, that they can see practically see what they learn.

Not just that. We learn a bit about computer hardware design, Economics, about Ethics. I laughed at the system back then saying what does ethics have to do with engineering?

I was a fool. Yes, today, I admit it. But although I admit I was a fool, I am not an ego headed idiot. My feet are firmly rooted in the ground. But in a sense, the KTP project touches on all these concepts at some level, radio spectrum, optical bandwidth, signal processors, multimedia codecs, operating systems. And the underlying subject about KTP is itself about Human Ethics. None of us ever saw Chernobyl, the Titanic or Mr.Peter goal, but we see piracy every day.

We all know that it is wrong at some level, yet how did society accept this phenomenon en masse, although it is morally incorrect?

Today, I realise that engineering didn't teach me engineering. It taught me about life, my future and about being human.

The original aim of the work was to make this readable and understandable for any layman. I think I will to a certain extent manage that. But I also want to add a bit of technical stuff from engineering theory and apply it to the book, but when I read one, I couldn't. My brain is already fuzzy with the drugs and I am already slower than ever. I just couldn't. At this point, I have almost reached the limit of my endurance, and atleast the first version cannot go on for ever.

I am confident that I will finish the first version, which itself will come into the public domain under Creative Commons Non commercial license, and if for some reason, I am unable to rewrite the book practically in an engineering theory context, hopefully someone else will and release it under the same Creative Commons Non Commercial license.